How to deal with aphids on fruit trees, you need to know the gardener and gardeners. The insect is small in size. It is difficult to see it, but characteristic traces of damage will indicate an unpleasant neighborhood. Experts have developed several effective methods that are recommended to be used to maintain the health of plantings.
About methods of struggle
Keeping the orchard healthy without skills and knowledge is difficult. The danger of aphids is that the insect is difficult to notice, its reproduction process is fast. The gardener must comply with the rules of agricultural technology and prevention in the complex. He must remember how to treat trees from aphids in order to prevent its appearance and the formation of colonies.
A healthy garden brings a big harvest
There are various preparations for processing plants:
- Biological - based on the extract of soil fungus (aversectin): Fitoverm, Actofit, Akarin;
- Chemical - processing is infrequent. Validity: Long: Fufanon, Karbofos;
- Folk - treatment with compositions of trees in the spring from pests and diseases is most effective. Spraying is used: ordinary water without additives, soap-soda or soap solution. Infusions - tobacco, ash, from lemon peel.
Before using this or that tool, it is recommended to find out the cause of the pests, as well as their approximate number.
The pest is developing rapidly
What is dangerous garden guest
A good fight against aphids on fruiting young or adult trees in the garden helps maintain health indicators and increase yield. Faced with the presence of aphids up to 90% of people. That is why it is important to know why it is dangerous. The first thing to remember is that the size of the insect is too small to be seen with the naked eye. Damage to leaves and wood. The sizes of individuals averaged 0.3 mm; some reach 0.5 mm. Rarely, aphids are more than 7 mm. Insect colonies grow very quickly. Therefore, control and prevention measures must be applied immediately.
Important! The first sign of aphid fruit tree infection is the appearance of a small black dot on the inside of the leaf plate.
The rapid development of the colony is achieved due to the ability of aphids to migrate - insects have wings, which allows them to fly to other trees. Garden treatment should be comprehensive. You need to act on all the trees and plants adjacent to them, as the aphids move in search of an optimal habitat for themselves. Flightless individuals can also cause disease in plantings and fruit crops. Processing should undergo:
- decorative bushes;
- fruit shrub
- decorative planting - small trees, creepers;
- vegetable crops.
Leaves Aphid First
Moisture is necessary for the normal functioning of an aphid colony. With the help of a proboscis, an insect pierces the soft tissues of leaves or buds. After this, the plant disrupts the metabolism of nutrients, the access of amino acids to the damaged area ceases. As a result, part of the plant or leaf does not develop and dries.
Visually, it is easy to determine that plantings were damaged by an insect colony. The gardener can observe on plantings:
- early falling of leaves (this does not happen around or around neighbors);
- the sheet plate changes: its edge twists, becomes darker, dries out;
- if the aphid is damaged not by fruit trees, but by plantings around, then their stems are deformed;
- on the trunk of the tree there are growths of different intensity and severity;
- buds and ovaries fall off.
As a result, the yield indicator decreases. Additionally, it is observed how the overall growth of a shrub or fruit tree slows down.
Important! The damaged plant is rapidly weakening. If you do not take timely measures to get rid of pests, then it increases the likelihood that it will die in the winter.
Aphid leaves waste products on the leaves or trunk of the tree that contain sugary substances. Plaque is called honey dew. As a result, the natural processes of photosynthesis are disrupted. A fungus actively propagates on a leaf plate. The danger from aphids also comes from the ability to quickly carry various viral diseases, which lead to the weakening and death of bushes, trees and other cultural plantings. Timely and competent crop care can prevent the problem. Additional protection will be the implementation of preventive measures and the phased destruction of colonies. Chemical, biological and folk methods are used for this purpose.
How to treat trees from aphids
If there are suspicions that the aphid has settled on trees, how to fight and what to do, every gardener should know. For primary treatment and as prophylactic agents, folk, biological and chemical preparations are used. Mechanical methods are also used. Each method has its advantages, so a complex effect is recommended.
Folk remedies for aphids
Active protection is required for the tree at various stages of growth. When leaf blooms or buds begin to appear, an aphid attack will weaken the tree. Decrease in productivity is one of the manifestations of the disease.
- treatment with infusions on herbs;
- spraying with tar;
- whitewashing trunks (whitening can be in spring and autumn);
- spraying (with ammonia, shampoo, soapy water).
Timely help can reduce the damage from aphid colony or prevent its formation. Urea and ammonia (spray solutions) work well.
Spring spraying from aphids and other pests
It is recommended to use the remedy on herbs as a supplement or at the stage of prevention. It gently acts on the tree, promotes deterrence, but does not always eliminate the source of the lesion completely. Among the most effective:
- Liquid with garlic - 5 liters of water and 50 g of chopped fresh garlic. Essential oils repel aphids and protect the treated surface from the formation of fungus;
- Infusion with tobacco (0.5 l of water and 100 g of dried tobacco);
- Infusion using celandine, potato tops and tomatoes (plants should be taken in the same amount).
Spraying is carried out in the spring phase of care, when the tying of the kidneys has not yet come, in the summer (June).
Chemical ways to protect the garden from aphids
Chemical preparations are used in several stages:
- in early spring (after snow melts);
- after swelling of the kidneys (the kidney should not fully open).
Additionally, drugs are divided into:
- systemic - watering the plant and spraying, repeat after 14 days;
- contact - spraying;
- intestinal effects - have a penetrating effect.
Each of the drugs must be used according to the instructions. Examples of funds - Confidor, Fufan, BI - 58.
Important! During the ripening of the crop, chemical components are not used.
Timely spraying of trees in the spring from pests and diseases is carried out by means of a pronounced effect - insecticides. Examples are Thunder, Provotox. Their use involves the treatment of plants, according to the instructions for a specific tool. Validity reaches 20 days.
These are methods in the fight against a pest that involve connecting natural enemies. Sometimes just processing is not enough, you need to use comprehensive protection. Among biological methods of protection:
- planting tansy (it attracts ladybugs, which are natural enemies of aphids);
- the use of red ants to control blacks that are carriers of pest larvae;
- planting elderberries, garlic, horseradish, wormwood or mustard next to fruit trees and bushes - the aphids do not tolerate the characteristic aroma from these plants.
Biological methods include spraying with ash.
Good neighborhood enhances landing protection
An effective popular way to deal with pests is to use a strong directed water flow. The stream manages to wash off the colony and the honey dew left by it. Fly tape is also used. It can be used to manually collect aphids.
For quick and guaranteed protection, an aphid hunting belt is installed. The device can be purchased ready to use or made with your own hands. Various materials are used for the trap: fabric, paper, cardboard. The width of the strip is about 30 cm. It is installed on a tree trunk in early spring (before awakening). It plays the role of a barrier and does not allow aphids to form a colony.
Processing trees in the spring from pests and diseases
The gardener must know how to protect and protect the trees from ants, aphids and other pests. Spraying and timely treatment can reduce the likelihood of diseases. For effective exposure, proportions must be observed and spraying and processing strictly in time.
When to treat trees from pests in the spring
The first time you can spray in the early spring. If chemicals are selected, then the period must be chosen before the leaves bloom or after the harvest. If biological or folk remedies are chosen, the treatment is carried out in several stages.
Spraying and processing using folk methods are carried out:
- at the time of budding;
- during flowering;
- during the formation of ovaries.
Important! During the growing season, you can use funds based on living microorganisms. Chemicals can be sprayed until the ovaries appear and 3-4 weeks before harvest.
Than to spray fruit trees in the spring
The early period (early spring) involves the treatment of fruit trees with a solution of lime and copper sulphate. Bordeaux infusion should be used because copper sulfate is an effective protection against diseases, pests and fungus. The spraying method is effective, but should be carried out in several steps:
- before swelling of the kidneys;
- at the time of opening of the kidneys (3% solution is used);
- during the growing season (1% solution).
The ready-to-use solution has a light blue tint, the indicators of acidity are slightly alkaline. If the shade is green, then the composition is not suitable for use. The iron component (Fe) or laundry soap should also not be added. They can cause excessive amounts of impurities of copper salts in the soil.
In order to protect the garden and fruit trees when aphids have already appeared, chemical agents are used. They have a targeted effect and are guaranteed to eliminate pests. Examples of funds - Fitoferm, Aktara.
The following measures will help reduce the likelihood of aphid colony formation:
- mowing grass near trees in spring and autumn;
- elimination of anthills;
- whitewashing trunks and the bottom of shrubs.
In addition, it is recommended to monitor the health of plantings - on ailing and weakened trees, aphids form colonies faster. The application of ash and lime to the soil will allow plantings to obtain the optimal amount of nutrients.
How to reduce the risk of infection of plants with parasitic insects? Properly selected plants - neighbors will help protect the orchard. Parasites do not like pungent odors, so it is recommended to plant dill or onions. Coriander and apple trees are a good neighborhood option. Beds with onions or garlic in the immediate vicinity reduce the risk of infection with parasitic insects due to the presence of a pungent odor in crops.
How to protect trees from ants
On time, it is necessary to carry out work related to protection from ants. They transmit diseases that weaken trees. As an effective measure of influence are applied:
- protective cone;
- hunting belt.
Important! It is necessary to carry out measures to protect against ants, since they attract aphids.
Glue from ants on trees
The composition is applied to the barrel. It does not allow insects to rise up. As a result, the likelihood of the larvae reaching areas convenient for development (leaf plate) decreases. Processing must be carried out in the spring.
Hunting belts from ants on fruit trees
You need to know not only when to timing spray the trees, but also how to further protect them from the invasion of ants. This helps the hunting belt. It is recommended to glue it low, update every season. You can form a cone - a trap so that the ants can not get out and damage the trunk.
Whitewashing the trunk - effective protection
How to whiten trees in spring
Until the moment of flowering, you need to whitewash the trunks and lower parts of the bushes. Gardeners need to know where to start processing in order to achieve maximum efficiency. You need to start from the ground. The best time is autumn. During this period, it is easy to eliminate pests and spores of fungi. Pre-treatment of the trunk from the old bark and healing of damage with garden var. For work, a solution is used - 10 liters of water and 2 kg of hydrated lime.