Epipremnum (Latin: Epipremnum) is a genus of herbaceous perennial vines of the Aroid family, which, according to various sources, has from 8 to 30 species. The scientific name "epipremnum" in translation means "on the trunks" and explains the mode of existence of representatives of the genus, whose range covers tropical forests from Northern Australia to India. Most species can be found in Southeast Asia, however, at present epipremnums have naturalized in other places, for example, in Hawaii. One of the most popular plants of this genus in room culture is the golden epipremnum, which is better known under the name "scindapsus". In fact, epipremnum and scindapsus are two different, albeit related plants, however, since the growing conditions and care requirements for them are almost identical, we can assume that this article equally describes the cultivation of both indoor epipremnum and scindapsus.
Planting and care of epipremnum
- Flowering: the plant is grown as a deciduous and almost never blooms in a room culture.
- Lighting: for green-leaf varieties, both bright diffused light and partial shade are suitable, for variegated varieties - only bright lighting, but direct sunlight is contraindicated for all types.
- Temperature: normal for a living room. Drafts for the plant are fatal!
- Watering: regular, but moderate, as soon as the top layer of the substrate dries.
- Humidity: if heating appliances are operating in the room, regular spraying of air around the plant will be required.
- Top dressing: from April to September - 2 times a month with liquid mineral fertilizers for vines; during the rest period, top dressing is applied no more than 1 time per month.
- Rest period: relative, from October to March.
- Transplantation: in April: young plants - annually, adults - once every 2-3 years.
- Reproduction: dividing the shoot into parts, layering and apical cuttings.
- Diseases: fungal infections.
- Pests: thrips, scale insects, spider mites.
Read more about growing epipremnum below
Epipremnum flower - description
Epipremnums are perennial evergreen herbaceous vines leading a semi-epiphytic lifestyle: they can exist independently or parasitize on trees. Nutrient plants get their fibrous root system, as well as multiple aerial roots, which under certain conditions can form an additional root system. The aerial roots by which the plant clings to the support appear from the nodes, and the aerial feeding roots from the internodes. With age, both types of aerial roots become stiff, and the supporting ones become cork, and the nourishing ones become woody and become covered with a bark of ribbon-like fibers.
In the photo: Growing epipremnum in a pot
The stems of epipremnums have the ability to cling to a support and take root along their entire length. Simple heart-shaped leaves can be thin or leathery. The leaves of adult plants reach a length of 60 and a width of 40 cm, but in young vines, the foliage is smaller. With age, leaf plates can change their entire shape into cirrus dissected or cirrus separately, and sometimes holes form in them, like in monstera leaves.
Epipremnum flowers have no decorative value. They are collected in an inflorescence-cob, tapering to the top, and wrapped in a canoe-shaped bedspread. Epipremnum bloom only after their leaves become adults, but since this does not occur at home, flowering is rarely observed. The fruit of epipremnum is a berry with seeds.
Epipremnum care at home
The epipremnum plant with green leaves is not demanding for lighting and perfectly develops in shading, however variegated varieties in partial shade can lose their color, therefore it is advisable to keep them as close to the light source as possible. However, all varieties of golden epipremnum require protection from direct sunlight: from prolonged exposure to the bright sun, the epipremnum leaves fade, fade, become soft, flabby and soon fall, and the stems of the creeper can stop growing. It is best to keep the epipremnum flower on the western or eastern windowsill under bright but diffused light.
A room epipremnum normally feels at normal room temperature, but it reacts very poorly to drafts, so it is undesirable to take it out in the summer to a balcony or to the garden, it is better just to ventilate the room more often.
Watering and feeding epipremnum
Epipremnum is watered when the topsoil in the pot dries. This plant is much easier to tolerate short droughts, but from regular waterlogging can get sick. If there is excess water in the substrate, the epipremnum leaves begin to “cry”: drops collect on the underside of the leaf plate. So the plant signals that watering needs to be reduced.
In winter, when indoor air becomes too dry due to constantly operating heating devices, epipremnum requires regular spraying. The plant needs additional hydration and strong summer heat. And for watering, and for spraying , you should use only soft water - melt, passed through a filter or left to stand for 24 hours.
Epipremnum is fed 2 times a month at home with liquid mineral complexes for vines. They begin to fertilize at the beginning of the season - in April, and finish in September. In autumn and winter, top dressing is applied no more than once a month.
In the photo: How to grow epipremnum
Transplantation and reproduction of epipremnum
Epipremnum is transplanted only as necessary, when its roots completely explore the space of the pot. Young plants require transplantation annually, and adults - once every 2-3 years. It is better to do this in April, at the very beginning of the new season, when the epipremnum begins to grow actively. The plant does not need a spacious pot, and each subsequent container should be only 2 cm larger than the previous one in diameter.
For the cultivation of epipremnum, a loose neutral humus soil is used, for example, a ready-made substrate for decorative and deciduous plants, which can be purchased at a flower shop or garden pavilion. Lay a thick layer of drainage material on the bottom of the pot, then transfer the plant to a new pot from the old one.
To make it easier to do this, water the plant a couple of hours before transplanting.
Place the flower in the center and gradually fill the remaining space with a substrate. Before the procedure, it is better to shorten the strongly overgrown stems of epipremnum.
Epipremnum is most often propagated vegetatively: by layering, apical cuttings and dividing the shoot into parts. For grafting , shoots with 2-3 leaves are used, which are rooted at a temperature of 22-25 ˚C in a substrate of equal parts of peat and sand. In the process of rooting, the cuttings are regularly sprayed. Regrowth of the roots usually takes 2-3 weeks.
If you want to get layering, put another pot of substrate next to the epipremnum , lay the shoot in it, fix it with a hairpin and sprinkle with soil. When the aerial roots of the plant are rooted in the substrate, the layers can be separated from the parent plant.
The most difficult thing is to propagate the epipremnum by dividing the shoot: the stem must be divided into segments with at least one leaf. They are planted in the soil mixture and kept in a dark place without watering and spraying. For reliability, you can use phytohormones.
Pests and diseases of epipremnum
Epipremnum diseases and their treatment
Epipremnum is sensitive to fungal infections, so it is very important to balance its watering, not to overfeed with nitrogen and to prevent hypothermia of the flower. If you do not comply with these conditions, the roots of epipremnum may rot.
In the photo: Liana epipremnum
Epipremnum pests and control
Epipremnum can be attacked by spider mites , scale insects or thrips. These are sucking pests that bite through the leaves and stems of a plant and feed on its juice. As a result of their vital activity, the epipremnum weakens, grows weak, its leaves turn yellow and fall off. In addition, there is a great danger of infection of epipremnum with viral diseases, the carriers of which are sucking pests. Scabies and thrips are destroyed by insecticidal drugs, and spider mites - acaricidal. These pest control products can be purchased at specialized stores.
Types and varieties of epipremnum
Golden Epipremnum (Epipremnum aureum)
Most often , a golden epipremnum or epipremnum aureum is grown in room culture . This is a herbaceous plant that climbs on a support with the help of additional roots. In length, its stems can reach from 1 to 2 m. On the stems are leathery, heart-shaped leaves of green color with a golden hue, which is more pronounced if the plant is kept close to the light. The most popular varieties of this species are:
- Golden Potos - a plant with leaves of a yellowish-golden hue;
- epipremnum Marble Queen - this popular variety has silver-white leaf blades with green touches;
- Angjoy is a plant with corrugated green leaves, covered with white strokes and strokes. This variety resembles ficus pumila;
- Pearls and jade - a compact variety of American selection, obtained on the basis of Marble Queen. The spotty color of its leaves includes white, green and gray-green colors, and it is almost impossible to find a pair of identically colored leaves.
Photo: Golden Epipremnum (Epipremnum aureum)
Cirrus Epipremnum (Epipremnum pinnatum)
Originally from India and China. This is one of the largest vines, reaching 15 m in nature, but at home its stems are much shorter. Shiny leaves on long grooved petioles can be whole or evenly pinnate lobed, oval or elongated elliptical. They are painted in dark green or blue-green. On the plates of adult leaves, round or oval openings often appear, which is why this species has long been ranked as the genus Monster. Cirrus epipremnum is rare in culture.
In the photo: Epipremnum pinnate (Epipremnum pinnatum)
Epipremnum forest (Epipremnum silvaticum)
It lives in the marshy forests of Sumatra and Indonesia and is an elegant plant up to 6 m long. It has shiny green whole oval-lanceolate leaves, pointed at the end. In length, they reach 20, and in width - 6 cm. This species can be found mainly in private collections.
In the photo: Epipremnum forest (Epipremnum silvaticum)