In small areas, in addition to vegetables, many gardeners would like to grow flowers, fruit trees and berry bushes. To place all these crops in accordance with the requirements of agricultural technology, it is necessary to use literally every centimeter. However, it is important not only to owners of small plots to plan plantings: even an area the size of a hectare requires an economic approach, otherwise instead of a beautiful estate you can get something completely worthless. How to properly plan a flower garden, a garden and a garden on a plot will be discussed in our article.
Benefits of Landing Planning
Planning plantings in the garden will allow you to use the area with maximum benefit and as a result get a good harvest of all crops - at least 20% more than with spontaneous placement. The well-thought-out arrangement of the beds will greatly facilitate the care of plants. In addition to horticultural crops, on the land you need to find a place for tanks for irrigation water and for a compost container or pit in which you will dispose of waste in order to obtain valuable organic fertilizer. The plan of the plot is drawn on paper. It should be detailed and contain information about all buildings and already growing trees.
Determination of soil acidity and adaptation of its composition to crops
For rational planning of planting, it is necessary to study the composition of the soil on the site and find out for which plants it is suitable. It is desirable to determine the acidity of the soil in the laboratory by taking its samples in different places of the site. At home, it is also possible to conduct a test, but it will not be so accurate: soil samples are poured into a container and a little vinegar is added to them. If bubbles appear on the surface, this indicates a neutral or alkaline pH of the soil, and the absence of a reaction means that the acidity of the soil is increased. Heavy clay soil needs to be dug up with sand, peat and chernozem. The percentage of additives depends on what crops you intend to grow.
In the photo: Checking the acidity of the soil
How to apply geographic feasibility in planning
When planning beds, you need to consider the location of the site. On the slopes it is best to place transverse beds directed to the south and southeast. In the lowland, beds form from south to north: this way they warm up faster. On dry soil with a deep occurrence of groundwater, plantings are located from west to east. In this case, the shadow from the plants will retain moisture in the soil longer. On a large territory, it is advisable to arrange a garden in the south, and an orchard in the north. If trees grow on the plot, the beds are broken at a certain distance from them so that the vegetables do not appear in the shade.
In the photo: We build beds in the yard
The number of beds is planned in accordance with the planted vegetables. Their width should not be more than 1.2 m, but the narrower the beds, the easier it is to care for them - to plant, weed and water. Aisles are left with a width of 0.5 m, so that it is convenient to walk between the beds, pick berries and fruits and remove garbage in the fall. The aesthetic appearance of the garden depends on maintaining clear boundaries between the beds. Passages to prevent weed growth are sprinkled with gravel or bark of large fraction trees.
In the photo: Decoration of beds
The garden itself can be edged with a low border of parsley , lettuce or a lovage . Borders should not block the plants from light. Their goal is to emphasize beauty and save usable space. For the fence of the entire garden, a fence is most often used, but it is better to plant fruit and berry or ornamental shrubs - barberry , gooseberry , grapes , cotoneaster , lilac or spirea instead .
Beds are bulk
These beds rise above the soil level, so they warm up faster in the sun. In regions with a cool climate, this advantage is especially valuable. It is good to create such beds in places where groundwater lies close to the surface, as well as in areas exposed to meltwater during the spring.
On high beds, it is convenient to grow cucumbers , onions and garlic - crops that are sensitive to high humidity and easily affected by root rot .
To arrange such a bed, it must first be marked out: enclose with pegs and sequentially connect these pegs with twine. Coarse waste, stems and branches are laid under the bed for drainage, and fertile soil is poured on top.
In the photo: Bulk beds High beds have the following advantages:
- they quickly warm in the spring, which allows you to plant crops earlier;
- the temperature of the soil on such beds is always higher, so heat-loving crops can be grown on them;
- the bed settles down quickly and is suitable for any vegetables except moisture-loving cabbage ;
- in lowland areas with regular flooding, high beds are the only way to grow healthy plants;
- on high beds it is easier to increase soil fertility.
Bulk beds also have disadvantages: the high cost of imported soil, as well as the rapid drying of the soil in the heat and, therefore, the need for frequent watering. This problem is solved by mulching the surface, but it is also an additional labor and financial cost.
In the absence of a border during rain, water flows from the beds, and the soil is eroded.
Having improved the bulk bed, they get a box. This is the name of the fenced-in crop landing. It is not difficult to create a box, but you need material for its fencing - brick, stone, boards, slate, etc. Organic waste (branches, leaves, tops, humus) is put at the bottom of the box. Fertile soil is poured onto the drainage layer. When fencing the beds with boards, slate or brick, moisture is better preserved, since these materials are not so much heated by the sun. The fence does not allow weeds to get inside, and they become smaller. It is convenient to work with such beds, and if the earth is constantly loosened, then autumn digging may not be required. Qualitatively made beds look solid and elegant.
In the photo: Bed-box
When planning planting, take into account their compatibility with each other. Plants, like humans, may be favored or disliked by each other. If you do not pay attention to it, poor compatibility of crops can adversely affect the crop.
Strawberries and legumes get along very well. If you plant lettuce and spinach next to both crops, it will benefit: their taste will improve. But cultivated plants do not like wormwood : the toxins that it secrets act on them depressingly. But wormwood broth can scare away slugs , fleas , aphids and other harmful insects, so it is advisable to find a secluded corner for this plant. Tomatoes love to grow on compost from their own tops. This is one of the few plants for which you do not need to look for a different bed every year: tomatoes can be grown in one place for up to 5 years.