Bonsai is the art of growing a miniature tree, which is an exact copy of the original. The secret of its small size in a flattened root system. It allows you to control plant growth at all stages of development. This feature is reflected in the name, "bonsai" is translated from Chinese as "grown in a tray."
Art originated in China. According to legend, the ruler ordered to recreate the natural landscape and architecture of the empire in miniature. So there was a bonsai.
In the VI century. the technique of creating mini-trees came to Japan. Local craftsmen have perfected the process. Over time, bonsai has not lost popularity: new styles and directions appear. The secrets of skill became available to the public, so everyone can grow a bonsai.
Bonsai tree - an exact copy of a full-size specimen in miniature
Types of Trees Used to Create Bonsai
The material for creating a bonsai can be any tree that is characteristic of a particular climatic zone. The main thing is to provide him with the necessary temperature regime, imitate the seasonal change of weather and establish a lighting system.
Coniferous trees are traditionally used in bonsai. This is due to their durability. Popular types include:
- pine tree;
- Japanese cryptomeria.
Miniature larch is suitable for both apartment and garden maintenance
Flowering and fruiting trees are also suitable for bonsai. With their help, you can create compositions of incredible beauty. Experts advise growing:
- apple tree.
Oliva owes its popularity to the nobility and exotic forms
For your information! In Russia, bonsai is often found from maple, oak, birch, pine, cedar and thuja. These garden species can be grown at home. They adapt well to temperature differences.
It is believed that a bonsai does not tolerate housing conditions, but this is not so. If the plant receives enough light, it adapts easily. For example, black pine bonsai can grow both in the house and in the garden. Its survival depends on maintaining a cool temperature.
There are several types of indoor bonsai. These include plants of tropical and subtropical zones. They need constant heat and sunlight. These include:
- different types of ficuses;
- an allemand;
Ficus bonsai easily takes root in apartment conditions
Important! The choice of plant to create a bonsai should be balanced. Fluctuations in temperature conditions will not allow to grow a healthy tree.
The value of bonsai in the house
Bonsai is a symbol of diligence, patience and hard work. It takes more than one year to form the root system and crown. If a tree receives proper care, it will survive several generations of gardeners. It is believed that bonsai is an embodied infinity.
Coniferous trees were especially revered. They kept foliage year round, remaining evergreen. Famous Japanese bonsai trees and shrubs that have existed for millennia. They were looked after by several generations of gardeners.
Home bonsai has many meanings: patience, peace of mind, peace, tranquility, hard work and a love of contemplation.
Bonsai tree care at home
Bonsai requires careful care. In a room with a plant, the temperature regime must be observed. It ranges from 10-18 ° C. The soil for planting is independently. A mixture of humus, clay, humus and river sand is considered traditional.
The three-component composition of the substrate
Important! Bonsai is placed away from heaters and batteries. He needs high humidity.
In addition to creating an artificial microclimate, you will have to take care of the ventilation system. A tree can die from the slightest draft, so the room should be isolated from the flow of cold air. Lighting is also important: direct sunlight is destructive for a bonsai. For each tree, lighting is selected separately. It will depend on the natural habitat.
To grow any bonsai, you need regular watering. The amount of water should be moderate.
Important! During the formation period, the tree needs frequent watering. Dry soil will lead to the death of the tree, and excessive watering will provoke decay.
Bonsai Health Pledge - moderate soil moisture
The beauty of a bonsai depends on how well it cares for its crown. To maintain it in perfect condition, regularly cut branches and leaves. Bonsai is transplanted every 3-4 years.
How to grow a bonsai tree at home
There is no universal guide on how to grow a bonsai with your own hands, the action plan depends on the type of plant.
Secrets of Bonsai Tree Care
Comfortable temperature for dwarf trees is 18 ° C to 25 ° C. This is an active growth phase. In winter, a bonsai needs a lower temperature. If you neglect this rule and do not change the climate to "winter", the plant will quickly wither. The minimum temperature for conifers is 10 ° C and 12-14 ° C for hardwood.
Lighting for the plant is vital. Bonsai feels good in bright, diffused light. Direct sunlight is contraindicated for them. In order to properly organize lighting, you need to find out from which climatic zone the plant originates. Some like partial shade, and some like long daylight hours.
Scattered light protects the plant from thermal burns and overheating
Most bonsai species are hypersensitive to air humidity. If the room does not have a professional humidification system, you will have to use improvised means. For example, arrange bowls of water around the perimeter and spray the tree daily.
Watering a bonsai should be carried out according to the rules. This is due to the shape of the growing pot resembling a lotus leaf. The roots should receive enough moisture: if they dry out, the plant will die immediately. However, it’s not worth zealous with watering: acidification of the soil will cause no less harm.
Important! Experts advise reducing watering in the winter. Deciduous species are watered with a small volume of water, and for evergreens, they reduce the substrate moisture by 2 times.
Water the bonsai from above using a spray nozzle. Some experts advise the immersion method: a pot with a plant is lowered into a container of water, the substrate is saturated with moisture, and water flows through the holes.
How much does a bonsai tree grow from seeds
Growing a tree from seeds is a laborious and lengthy process, it takes from 15 to 30 years. Often bonsai are inherited.
Germinating bonsai from seeds will take more than one decade
What conditions are needed for growing
It's no secret that a bonsai seedling can be bought in a nursery. However, there are plants whose formation must be controlled from an early date. These include, for example, elms. Without outside interference, the crown will form incorrectly. If it was decided to use seedlings, their height should not exceed 20 cm.
Seeds or seedlings are planted in a low but deep pot. Its volume should exceed the volume of the root coma. In addition, there should be a hole in the tank for water drainage. The substrate is mixed from 3/5 garden soil, 1/5 coarse sand and 1/5 peat. Immediately after planting, the first pruning of branches is carried out - only horizontal ones are left.
For your information! Bonsai planted in the fall. This is necessary for adaptation and proper rooting of the plant.
It is easy to destroy seedlings in the first months of life, so it requires careful care
The crown is trimmed regularly. The height of the branches should not exceed 30 cm. To slow the growth, make small cuts on the trunk. This regulates the circulation of juice.
Bonsai is transplanted every 2-3 years to remove excess roots. The capacity for growing is left unchanged. So the tree will keep its miniature size.
Features of growing bonsai
The formation of branches and crowns occurs using wire. It is imposed on the branches or turned into a tensile structure that changes their direction.
The hardest thing is to lay wire on conifers. It is fixed on each shoot (to the very top). Deciduous plants can be adjusted by pruning branches. On smooth-bore trees (for example, maple), the wire is not left for long, otherwise it will leave marks.
In trees with rough bark, for example, pines, marks are less common. However, the wire must not be allowed to grow deep.
Important! Wiring is carried out in autumn or winter. It should coincide with pruning the extra shoots.
Wire wrapping gives the plant the desired shape
As materials use a specialized aluminum wire with copper coating. Its thickness should equal one third of the thickness of the branch.
Bonsai trees: types and features
As already mentioned, a bonsai can be created from almost any tree. The main thing is to organize conditions close to natural for him.
Pine bonsai. Types: mountain, ordinary, Japanese white and black. Needs plenty of sunshine in spring, summer and autumn. Pine is regularly watered with a small volume of water. Feeding every month. Transplanted every 4-5 years. Pine is propagated by seeds and cuttings.
Pine - a traditional tree in bonsai culture
Maple bonsai. Species: Japanese, holly, field, rocky, dunate (not to be confused with red). Decorative maple varieties are sensitive to sunburn, temperature extremes and wind. Without light, they quickly fade. To preserve the brightness of the color, you need to put the bonsai in a well-lit place. In summer, it needs abundant watering, in winter, the need for moisture is sharply reduced.
Despite their miniature size, maple leaves retain their familiar shape
Oak Bonsai. Species: beech and northern. Ideal for forming branches using wire. Need bright lighting. In winter, oak is kept at a temperature of 5 ° C to 15 ° C. The higher the temperature in the room, the more abundantly you need to water the tree.
Oak tree needs special care
Birch Birch Types: warty, dangling, fluffy, crying. The height of the handle should not exceed 80 cm. The parameters of the pot: height - 10 cm, diameter - up to 45 cm. The formation of the bone occurs with the help of a pinch. It is not recommended to cut large branches from spring to late summer.
Birch has a lush and spreading crown
Ficus bonsai. Species: Bengal, ginseng, figs, microcarp, dark leafed, rusty red. The root system is formed by multiple pruning of the main shoot. The trunk can be tied or adjusted with wire. He loves sunlight, does not tolerate a sharp change in conditions.
Ficus quickly gets sick from temperature extremes
Sakura Bonsai. Grown from the seeds. In the summer, half a glass of water is watered daily. They prefer bright lighting, do not tolerate cold and drafts. The recommended diameter of the pots is up to 20 cm. Likes soil with a high content of nitrogen, humus, potassium.
One of the most spectacular and difficult to care bonsai
Thuja bonsai. Types: blue, golden, pyramidal, dwarf, pillow-shaped, spherical. The top is formed by a cone or tiers. The bottom of the pot must be lined with a drainage layer. Excess roots are cut every 3-4 years.
Thuya prefers gardening to indoor
Cedar Bonsai. Species: Japanese, Lebanese, Himalayan, dwarf. Extremely sensitive to plenty of moisture. With excessive watering, the roots rot very quickly. In spring, it is necessary to fertilize the cedar with substances with a high nitrogen content. Himalayan cedar loves partial shade, other species - bright light. If the tree is healthy, its needles will be cast in blue.
Cedar needs additional feeding
To grow a bonsai with your own hands, you need to take into account the characteristics of each tree species. A small mistake will nullify years of effort.
How to grow bonsai at home from pine
Pine - a bonsai, characteristic both for Japan and for Russia. Japanese black pine is especially popular. It has a beautiful crust relief, is resistant to adverse conditions and does not require soil rich in minerals.
How to plant pine bonsai from seeds
To grow a small pine from seeds, it will take 20-30 years. Sometimes this period is reduced to 15 years. For successful cultivation of bonsai from seeds, it is recommended to draw up a step-by-step program.
Viable pine seedlings are persistent and unpretentious
- Pine seeds are stratified for 1-3 months. For sowing, a container of 15 cm deep is prepared. Its bottom is covered with a three-centimeter layer of drainage. The remaining volume of the tank is filled with coarse sand. It is recommended to calcine it before use. 2 cm deep furrows are made on the surface of the soil. A distance of 3 cm is left between them. Fine sand will be needed to fill the seeds.
- Seeds are sown in late winter - early spring. They are laid out at a distance of 3 cm from each other, covered with fine sand (previously disinfected). Watering is best done by immersion. Some experts advise covering the pot with glass and airing daily.
- In case of mold infection, the soil is removed and the excavation is treated with fungicide.
- The first shoots will appear in a couple of weeks. Remove the glass and put the pot in the sun, while constantly monitoring the moisture of the soil. Seedlings do not need special care.
- When the sprouts reach a height of 7 cm, carry out the primary formation. Seedlings are dug out of the ground and completely cut off their roots (where the green base of the trunk ends). Ready cuttings are dipped in a bowl with a hormone and left in the prepared solution for 16 hours. Suitable heteroauxin, succinic acid, root.
- Seedlings are planted in separate containers. Three months later, the first kidneys will appear. Adult bonsai should be transplanted every 3 years.
Important! In the first months after sowing, the sprouts show a high level of “mortality”. Withered and damaged seedlings must be immediately separated from the living.
Keeping pines small in size
After the bonsai is planted, they proceed to the formation of appearance. It is believed that pine need to have short, sparse needles. They are plucked from mid-July until the onset of autumn. It is permissible to leave four pairs of needles on the upper shoots, seven on the middle shoots and 12 on the lower ones.
Size is adjusted by cropping. At the end of summer, all needles grown this year are cut. The tree mobilizes resources to grow new ones, but they will be shorter. This is because less time is left before winter.
The crown of the pine is formed using wire and regular pruning. Do it in the fall or in the winter. The most common method of cropping.
The crown of the pine is sensitive to correction and quickly takes the desired shape
Experts advise to follow simple rules:
- the first pruning is carried out one year after planting;
- no more than a third of the crown can be cut at a time;
- instead of a garden var, resin is used;
- the cut is done at an angle of 45 °. The lower edge can rise above the upper one by no more than 2 mm;
- the slice is carried out at an average height. The resin should not leak too much;
- branches growing vertically, cut to the outside. Those that are inclined to the inside;
- thick shoots gently cut;
- if the cut does not stop “bleeding”, it is treated with garden var.
Important! If the tree gets stuck in the resin, then the pruning has gone wrong. It is necessary to monitor the status of the tools. Dull blades can cause serious tree wounds.
How to grow bonsai from an oak acorn
Oak bonsai can be grown in two ways: acorns and seedlings. This process takes at least 30 years.
Where to start growing bonsai
Growing bonsai begins with the choice of material. Acorns can be collected in the forest or bought in a store. They should not have mold, wormholes or other damage. Healthy acorns are colored brown with a greenish tint.
The quality of the fruit is checked by soaking: the rotten ones will float to the surface and soften. Healthy acorns are dried and sent for storage in a bag full of wood chips and moss, they absorb the rest of the moisture. Germination will take at least two months. All this time, acorns are stored in the refrigerator.
Sick acorns often have no external defects, so they must be soaked
Landing is carried out in stages:
- The oak is planted in the ground collected from a tree from which acorns were dug. There should be few fallen leaves and branches in the ground.
- The capacity is chosen wide, but shallow (up to 10 cm). A grate is installed at the bottom and a drainage layer is poured. A centimeter layer of sand mixed with crushed stone is laid on top. Earth is added to it. It is better to lay the soil in a slide to ensure an even distribution of moisture.
- If the plant has taken root, after a month and a half they form the backbone of the future bonsai. The wire makes an elegant bend, securing it from the outside of the pot.
Oak prefers a warm climate with high humidity. It is better to grow a tree on a windowsill, where it will be fully lit by the sun. In winter, the roots are covered with dry foliage so that they do not freeze. The soil is moistened by immersion in a basin or container with water. Top watering is not recommended.
How to choose a plant to create a bonsai
To create a bonsai from oak, a cork or stone grade is suitable. If seedlings are used as the material, specimens should be selected no higher than 15 cm. To make the oak better take root, it is recommended to collect the soil in which it grew.
The seedling should have a well-developed main root. If the small roots do not turn white, then they have not yet ripened. The leaves are carefully inspected for damage and dryness.
Healthy oak leaves are smooth, large, with a clean color.
Pruning and pinching
After the young shoots get stronger, you can proceed to the formation of the crown. Excess shoots are removed with a sharp knife. The remaining bend using wire. Soft tissue flaps are laid under it.
Selective trimming of the bark gives the trunk a textured nodularity. The shoots are shortened to the state of horizontal processes, which will allow the crown to grow in breadth.
Trimming the bark forms the structure of the trunk
To inhibit the growth of oak, the trunk is incised in different places. This stimulates the outflow of juice. Slices are treated with garden var.
Young leaves are cut in half so that they are in harmony with the small size of the tree. Over time, they grind and the need for trimming disappears.
The density of the crown provides a pinch. In early summer, the tops of the branches are cut with secateurs. This will lead to the formation of several shoots at the same base. The crown will become more magnificent, will take on a spherical shape.
Bonsai is not only philosophy and art. Growing trees requires monetary and emotional costs. To learn how to properly grow bonsai at home, you will have to study a lot of literature. The result will be achieved only by a patient person immersed in the process.