Myrtle tree is a plant about which there are many legends explaining its appearance on earth. One of them says: when he was expelled from paradise, Adam carried away a myrtle twig to the earth and grew from it a myrtle tree that resembled him a garden of paradise.
What is myrtle? The plant got its name because of the high content of essential oils, the meaning of the Greek word "myrtle" is "balm" or "incense".
Myrtle is a tree or shrub that is distinguished by its graceful form and amazing aroma, causing great interest among gardeners and fans of bonsai art.
Wintering in the open field is possible only in warm regions, so in Russia myrtle is cultivated indoor flower.
The origin and appearance of the myrtle tree
The homeland of myrtle (Myrtus) is considered to be the Mediterranean. It belongs to the Myrtaceae family.
Its wild species grow in Italy, France, Spain, Greece, North Africa. The plant can be found in countries of the American continent, in Australia, Asia, and the Azores.
Myrtle tree grown in bonsai style
The plant is a representative of the slow-growing flora - annual growth does not exceed 15 cm.
In the wild, this tree is up to 5 meters high. Myrtle as a home flower usually grows up to 60 cm, less often reaches 1 meter high.
Myrtle is an evergreen plant with whole, oppositely emerald-colored leaves with small veins containing essential oil with a wonderful aroma.
White flowers collected in short brushes of inflorescences can form bunches or grow solitary.
In the place of flowers in the autumn, round fruits appear, usually of a dark blue color. Sometimes the fruits are yellowish and whitish tones. Inside contains seeds of irregular shape, from which you can grow a new tree.
The tenderness of the flower is amazing
The flower of small sizes with five snow-white petals and golden stamens has an incredible aroma.
Types and varieties of myrtle tree
There are from 20 to 40 species and more than 100 varieties of myrtle. Most of them are grown in botanical gardens in many countries of the world.
For growing at home, they often use a variety - ordinary myrtle, the most unpretentious of them.
Characteristics with which the plant attracts are high decorativeness, aroma, healing properties and the ability to grow a bonsai tree.
Swamp myrtle (Сalyculata)
Swamp myrtle is an evergreen shrub up to 1 meter high. The popular name is Kassandra.
The crown is sprawling, the stems are straight. There are small scales on the branches. The leaves are small, attached to short petioles. Snow-white flowers are collected in racemose inflorescences. Differs in adaptability to the Russian frosty winter. A favorite place for growth is sphagnum bogs. Life expectancy is up to 50 years.
Additional Information. Leaflets and shoots contain poison. Their use as livestock feed is strictly prohibited.
Variegata myrtle (Variegata)
It is distinguished by variegated leaves bordered with specks and dashes of amber hue, the brightness of which depends on the light. Variegate myrtle feels great outdoors and indoors.
When creating favorable conditions, it begins to bloom with small flowers of beige and snow-white shades with golden stamens. Used to make flower arrangements.
Unusual flower in myrtle swamp
Exudes an amazing aroma, destroys germs and neutralizes carbon dioxide. It is considered a symbol of fertility.
The evergreen shrub received its name in honor of the God of marriage, the second name is Happiness of the bride. Symbolizes youth and beauty. Young people planning to get hymen, gave each other twigs of myrtle. It has small leaves of emerald color in the form of a lancet. In the wild, grows up to 5 meters tall, like a houseplant - not higher than 1 meter. Blooming twigs adorn wedding bouquets.
Lush flowering hymen varieties
Lemon Myrtle (Lemon)
It has a lemon smell. In the wild, found in the tropical zone of the Australian mainland. It is widely used in cooking for the preparation of syrups, sauces, dressings and drinks. Dried leaves are used as spices and seasonings.
Myrtle Communis, or ordinary (Communis)
Mirt Communis is a decorative culture. It prevails in the evergreen oak forests of the Mediterranean in the vicinity of bushes. It has the appearance of a small evergreen tree up to 5 meters high.
Interesting! Single oblong leaves are located on tetrahedral stems. Blooms profusely with snow-white, very fragrant flowers located on short brushes.
A kind of ordinary subspecies. Large-leaved myrtle has an antimicrobial effect. Destroys bacteria and pathogens. It is used in the treatment and prevention of:
- sore throats;
- gastrointestinal tract diseases.
It grows to 4 meters. The stems are tetrahedral, shiny leaves opposite, up to 5 cm long with pointed edges. Small flowers with five snow-white petals grow on long pedicels. Golden stamens are located symmetrically.
Myrtle Alhambra (Alhambra)
Attracts with its decorative look. Suitable for growing outdoors and as a houseplant. Used to create compositions. Prefers bright, lit places.
White fruits of the myrtle Alhambra
Flowering occurs in the spring. Snow-white flowers are miniature with a strong aroma. In their place, oval-shaped seed bolls are formed, unlike other species, have a snow-white color.
Mirt Tarentina (Tarentina)
Dwarf form of the usual subspecies. It blooms profusely with miniature fragrant snow-white flowers collected in inflorescences.
Small-leaved, no more than 1.5 cm long, elongated with sharp jagged edges, located on short emerald petioles.
This representative of the flora is growing rapidly. In the wild, it exceeds 5 meters; in indoor conditions it reaches 1 meter. It responds well to sunlight, regular watering and spraying.
Myrtle African (Myrsina)
The African myrtle is mistakenly considered to be the Mirtov family, although it belongs to the Mirsinov family (Myrsinoideae). They have an external similarity, but upon careful examination, different leaf shapes are found, the flowers are smaller and different from myrtle.
The correct name for the double is African Mirsina. Area of growth:
- African continent;
Mirsin Afrikana Mirsinovyh family
There are shrubby and tree-like forms of myrtle, there are variegated, requiring good lighting.
The shoots are reddish. Small elliptical leaves are dark green on the upper side and light green on the bottom.
There are female and male flowers. The former are smaller with white, light purple or pinkish petals. Men's - in lilac tones with bright red anthers.
The purple berries formed in the fall, fleshy in the form of balls, contain 1 seed. They hang on branches for a long time, preserving decorativeness.
Myrtle transplant after pot shopping
Myrtle purchased at a store requires special attention. Any change of scenery causes stress. For myrtle, the right choice of environment is the main condition for growing.
The plant is set to two-week quarantine to adapt to new conditions. At this time, it is necessary to conduct treatment from possible pests with a complex pesticide.
Note! Spraying should be carried out in a non-residential, well-ventilated area, eliminating the ingestion of the drug on products, animals and people.
An urgent transplant of a purchased flower is necessary for two reasons:
- Often, the soil used to place the plant before sale does not meet the requirements and may contain harmful impurities.
- Myrtle was purchased in a shipping container unsuitable for flower development.
What you need for landing
This plant does not like pots of large sizes, it is necessary to relocate it into a pot that is the same size as the store one so that the root ball fills the entire internal space of the tank.
Important! The size of the pot should correspond to the root coma of the myrtle.
It is necessary to prepare the land for planting, correctly determining the composition and ratio of components. Slightly acidic soil suits him. You can use the purchased mixture for evergreens or prepare the mixture yourself.
There are several options for soil composition.
- sod - 1 part;
- humus - 1 part;
- peat land and sand in equal proportions - 1 part.
- sand - 1 part;
- humus - 2 parts;
- clay soil - 2 parts;
- sod - 2 parts.
A simple greenhouse land would do.
A hydrogel can be added to the soil for myrtle, it will retain moisture. It is necessary to prepare material for drainage, it is recommended to use perlite and expanded clay.
Additional Information. The best effect is observed when perlite and vermiculite are mixed into the soil.
In the house, a window sill facing west or east will be a suitable place. This arrangement will meet the requirements of lighting and temperature conditions.
Additional Information. Insufficient lighting will affect the appearance: elongated stems, faded small leaves. With an excess of light, the leaves turn yellow and curl.
Drafts of myrtle are fearless; frequent airing will do him good. In order to ensure the flow of fresh air, in the summer it is useful to transfer myrtle to the balcony or to the garden, gradually accustoming it to a new place.
Step-by-step landing process
Planting is recommended to be carried out on the 2nd or 3rd day after watering, when the root lump has dried up (it is easier to remove it from the tank).
- Carefully remove the bush (sapling) from the pot.
- If possible, clear the roots of the earth.
- Carefully trim matted and dry roots.
- Place a drainage layer on the bottom of the pot.
- Sprinkle with prepared soil for myrtle with a layer of 2-3 cm.
- Set the seedling vertically.
- Fill the pot with a mixture, slightly compacting the soil around the trunk.
- Water abundantly, after a while remove excess water from the pan.
Transplant - removal of old soil, pruning of dry roots
Important! The root neck should remain above ground level.
An adult plant is transplanted every 3-4 years, choosing a larger pot, a young seedling - annually.
In order not to damage the roots, they use the method of transshipment: they are transplanted into another more voluminous vessel together with the contained soil mixture, adding a fresh substrate.
Reproduction of specimens is carried out in two ways:
A method using cuttings is considered to be preferable, since varietal traits may be lost when a new plant is obtained from seeds.
The operation is carried out in January-February or July. To successfully root, choose young semi-lignified apical and lateral cuttings 6-9 cm long. The lower leaves are removed, the remaining leaves are shortened.
The slice is treated with a drug that stimulates root formation. Planted in the ground, watered. The container is installed in a shaded place, covered with glass or film, which must be removed regularly for ventilation. The roots appear after two to three weeks.
Important! After a month, rooted cuttings are transplanted into separate pots and well watered.
A shallow container is filled with a moistened mixture of peat and sand in a ratio of 1: 1. Shed with a fungicide solution. Evenly distribute the seeds on the surface, covering with a thin layer of the same soil mixture. Cover the container with glass or film. Set in a cool place with temperatures up to 19 ° C. Crops are regularly aired and, if necessary, watered. Shoots appear after 1-2 weeks.
Emergence of seedlings
After the formation of two true leaves, they are dived into separate containers filled with soil mixture for myrtle. Seedling growth begins some time after transplanting.
Myrtle is a houseplant that does not require special care at home, but it, like other plants, needs to create favorable conditions for its existence.
Illumination is one of the most important factors in normal development. The light should be bright, but diffused. Intensive exposure to direct sunlight is dangerous for him.
Myrtle should be kept at a temperature:
- in spring and summer - 18-20 ° C;
- in winter - no higher than 10ᵒС.
Fresh air has a beneficial effect on the condition of the flower, so frequent ventilation of the room where the myrtle grows is recommended. He loves moist air, leaves should be sprayed every day, especially on hot days. Abundant watering is needed in the spring, in the summer and in the fall, the plant is watered as soon as the topsoil dries. In the cold season, watering is reduced, but you should make sure that the land does not dry out. At the same time, moisture stagnation must not be allowed, which can lead to root decay. Irregular weak watering will cause drying not only of the leaves, but also of the stems.
Myrtle does not require complicated care, responds well to fertilizer application, top dressing is necessary for growth and flowering.
For irrigation use only soft well-settled, not less than a day, water. During the growing season (spring-summer-autumn) water abundantly as soon as the top layer of the earth dries. In winter, watering is less intense, you need to ensure that the soil does not dry out.
Important! Stagnant fluid is unacceptable at any time.
To revive the myrtle, if the lump of earth in the pot is dry, the plant with the pot is immersed in water. To maintain air humidity, spraying is carried out from the spray gun using water for irrigation.
From spring to autumn, regular plant nutrition is carried out once a week, using fertilizers for indoor plants or complex mineral fertilizers. Phosphate fertilizers are needed for lush flowering, nitrogen trees are needed for good tree growth. In winter, top dressing is not needed.
It is important to know how to care for myrtle during the flowering period. For more magnificent flowering, the myrtle is placed in a tight pot or the pruning process is excluded, fertilizing with fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus is used, after which it will look great.
Note! Flowering usually begins in late spring or with the onset of summer and lasts almost 2 months. At this time, the volume of water for irrigation and the frequency of spraying increase.
The plant is transferred to a cool, with temperatures up to 10 ° C, but a bright place, a glazed balcony would be ideal. At this time, the plant is watered once a week, controlling that the topsoil does not dry out. You can not feed the flower or fertilize no more than 1 time per month or after 5 weeks. Spraying is required if the pot is installed in a warm room. Leaf dropping occurs when the plant is hot. With the onset of spring, the splendor of the bush will be restored.
Active growth in the winter slows down, there comes a period of rest. To it, the plant is prepared gradually:
- reduce the temperature of the content;
- reduce the volume and frequency of irrigation.
For your information. This does not apply to specimens less than 3 years old; they are left in a warm, lit place.
How to trim myrtle
To form a beautiful crown, use pruning. It is better to do this in early spring or after the end of the flowering period. In the summer, you can remove a few extra branches. The crown takes on a pyramidal shape if the plant is not cut. Myrtle tolerates pruning well, the tree can be given any geometric shape.
There are two ways to do this:
By pinching, a more branched, lush crown can be achieved, but the number of flowers drops sharply due to the fact that flower buds are removed. This method can be used all year round.
The plant suffers less from pruning, it is better to carry it out in the spring. By trimming the side shoots, a tree is formed, trimming the apical shoots will give the myrtle a bush shape.
Additional Information. While a young plant is being formed, it is not recommended to trim the crown - this is poorly reflected in its development.
Myrtle flower, care for which at home is not too burdensome. Attention to it will be echoed by the fragrant aroma and beauty of the crown.
In addition to aesthetic pleasure, myrtle home flower has a number of useful qualities and healing properties. It is considered a symbol of rebirth, purity, youth, fertility, fame, success in life, because of this, from ancient times it has been endowed with magical properties. In any case, this DIY-grown plant will decorate the house and create an atmosphere of peace and tranquility in the family.