Do you know that the Fuchsia seed found during excavations in New Zealand is about 30 million years old? But the plant itself is even older.
In places of its natural habitat, fuchsia can reach a height of 10 m, but in room culture its growth is much more modest. But fuchsia flowers deserve the most striking epithets: it is not for nothing that one of the purple shades was named after this exotic plant.
- How to plant and grow fuchsia at home?
- How to care for this plant?
- How to make fuchsia bloom?
Read about it in our article.
Planting and caring for fuchsia
- Blossoming: in the spring.
- Lighting: in the morning - bright diffused light, in the afternoon - partial shade (eastern or western windowsill).
- Temperature: in summer - no higher than 20 ˚C, in winter - no higher than 15 ˚C.
- Watering: during the growth period - regular, but moderate, after drying of the topsoil in the pot. In winter, watered 1-2 times a month.
- Humidity: it is recommended to spray the leaves with warm water in a hot, dry time or place the pot on a tray with wet pebbles.
- Top dressing: from March once every 10 days, fertilizers for flowering indoor plants. In winter, feeding is stopped.
- Pruning: twice a year: after the completion of the growing season (in early October) and in winter (early January).
- Rest period: late autumn and winter.
- Transplant: annually in the spring.
- Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
- Pests: aphids, whiteflies, spider mites.
- Diseases: rust, powdery mildew, root rot.
Read more about growing fuchsia below
Fuchsia (lat. Fuchsia) - a genus of perennials of the family Cypriot, with about 100 species. In nature, fuchsia flower is found in South and Central America, as well as in New Zealand, and is an evergreen shrub. The name Fuchsia received its name in honor of one of the "fathers of botany" Leonard von Fuchs. Indoor fuchsia, grown in culture for more than 200 years, is a hybrid fuchsia and its many forms and varieties. She has long been loved by flower growers who affectionately call her the "Japanese lantern."
Home Fuchsia - Description of Growing
In nature, fuchsia looks like a shrub with flexible branches. Fuchsia leaves, green or slightly reddish, oval, opposite, slightly pointed and serrated at the edges. Fuchsia blooms profusely and continuously drooping flowers, consisting of a bright calyx and a tubular corolla with curved edges. Calyx lobes longer than petals, and stamens longer than calyx. Fuchsia flowers - on long pedicels; the color of the flowers is pink, white, red, orange, cream, lilac, purple - sometimes three different shades in the flower. The fruit is an edible berry.
The plant is so plastic that it can be given any shape - ampelous, bush, pyramidal or to grow a standard tree. In addition, different varieties of fuchsia bloom at different times with flowers of various colors, and you have the opportunity to create a collection of fuchsias that will bloom from early spring to late autumn. Fuchsias differ in flowering time, in the color of the flowers and in their appearance. For instance:
- simple flowers (non-double), varieties: Brutus, Winston Churchill, Bon Accord;
- semi-double flowers, varieties: Tennessee Walls, Snowcap, Satellite;
- terry - Midge, Swingtime, Fashion;
- Brushwort - Leverkusen, Swanley Yellow.
Home Fuchsia Care
How to care for fuchsia at home
Caring for fuchsia at home is surprisingly simple. It should be remembered that fuchsia prefers cool rooms in which the temperature does not rise above 20 ºC. In summer. In winter, the temperature should be no higher than 15 ºC. The best place that fuchsia could take at home is the eastern or northern windowsill. If in the summer the apartment is too stuffy, it is better to take the plant to the balcony or to the courtyard and find a well-lit place there, where the sun's rays fall only in the morning. At noon and until evening fuchsia prefers partial shade.
Watering should be regular and sufficient during the period of growth and flowering. It is necessary to water after drying the top layer of the soil, while making sure that there is no stagnation of moisture in the roots. Water for irrigation must be defended or filtered. In late autumn, watering is reduced, and in winter 1-2 times a month. It would be nice to avoid overheating of the roots in the summer heat to grow fuchsia in a thick ceramic pot. It will be very refreshing for your beauty to spray with water in the summer, you can also achieve the desired humidity by placing a pot of fuchsia on a pallet with wet pebbles.
Fuchsia growing in open ground is best fed with biological fertilizers. Fuchsia at home responds well to dressing with ready-made complex fertilizers for flowering plants, which are applied once every two weeks during the growing season. In these fertilizers, as a rule, there is no nitrogen component or it is very insignificant. In the winter months, a dormant period begins, and the plant will not need to be fed.
Fuchsia needs an annual transplant in spring. A mixture of turf, leafy earth, peat, sand and humus in equal parts is used as a substrate. A drainage layer, for example, of expanded clay, is required. It is best to transplant fuchsia by transshipment: a little soil mixture is poured into the pot on the drainage layer, then the plant is transferred with an earthen lump, then the voids are filled with the soil mixture. The transplanted fuchsia is placed in a well-lit place, the stems are cut to one third of the length, sprayed and well watered. If you do everything right, fuchsia blooms will be plentiful.
Home Fuchsia Pruning
Experts suggest trimming indoor fuchsia twice a year: at the end of the growing season - in early October, and in winter - at the very beginning of January. The first pruning involves the removal of all faded branches at a height of 2 cm from sleeping buds located in the sinuses, which are easy to detect by carefully examining each branch. After pruning, you can begin to remove pests, seed boxes that you do not need, and waste peduncles. The second pruning is carried out in January and represents the final formation of the crown of the plant.
Propagation of domestic fuchsia
Propagation of fuchsia seeds
Fuchsia, grown from seeds, rarely retains the characteristics of the original plant, so this method is interesting only for those gardeners who are keen on selection experiments. The complexity of this method lies in the need to exclude self-pollination of fuchsia and pollination of the plant by insects. To do this, anthers that are not yet blooming are removed, and the pollen of the paternal plant is applied to the stigma of the pestle. After that, a cover is put on the flower to isolate it from insects. You can make a cover from paper or fabric, securing it below the flower with threads. When the fruit ripens, it is carefully cut, the seeds are removed and dried a day or two.
Fuchsia seeds are sown on top of a moist substrate without seeding, then the container is placed in a greenhouse and kept in good light and at room temperature. Seedlings will appear in a couple of weeks, after a year and a half or two months, seedlings are planted more spaciously (dive), and after a couple of months young plantlets are planted in separate pots. The seedlings should be accustomed to the environment gradually, opening the greenhouse for a while, otherwise unadapted seedlings may die after being placed in normal room conditions.
Propagation of fuchsia by cuttings
And yet, the most reliable way to propagate fuchsia is vegetative, namely, by cuttings, since it can be used at any time of the year, but it is more reasonable to propagate fuchsia in spring. It is best to take young cuttings, as lignified pieces take root and grow for too long. The length of the stalk on average should be 10-20 cm, the leaves in the lower part of the stalk are removed, the remaining ones are shortened by half.
For rooting, take filtered water, placed in the water the stem is covered with a plastic bag or a plastic bottle. The roots of the stalk may appear already on the fourth day, or maybe on the tenth. Do not wait for long roots to grow, plant the stalk in the substrate as soon as the first young roots appear. There are daredevils among gardeners who plant fuchsia cuttings in the ground immediately, bypassing the stage of rooting them in water. But greenhouse conditions to create cuttings necessary in any case.
Fuchsia in winter
Fuchsia in winter gradually passes to a dormant period, which is necessary for almost any plant. If she rests fully and restores her wasted strength, then you can hope for abundant and long flowering in the next year.
To prepare the plant for rest, it is necessary to gradually reduce the watering of fuchsia, stop applying fertilizers and, finally, move the flowerpot with the plant to a cooler room with an air temperature of 10-15ºC, where the fuchsia will winter. In an ordinary city apartment, a loggia or balcony can be used as such a room, provided that they are closed by glazed frames and insulated.
Do not forget to prune the plant and exterminate the pests before hibernation. If you are worried that fuchsia will be cold, insulate the pot with polystyrene foam or put it in a sawdust box. Fuchsia can winter in the cellar, and even in the garage, because it does not matter to her whether light will enter the room during this period or complete darkness. But if your fuchsia has to winter on the windowsill in a well-heated room, then you can hardly expect from her that in the spring she will quickly gain the necessary shape and make you unparalleled flowering.
Fuchsia is a lowly plant, but it requires love and care, like any other. Therefore, if you doom an exotic plant to winter hard labor on the windowsill, you will have to make sacrifices and keep the glass pane in the “air” position almost around the clock.