Marigolds - permanent duty on the beds of the whole world. It did not work out with seedlings of any fashionable novelty, missed deadlines or are afraid to take on capricious handsome men - plant marigolds! They will never let you down!
Probably not a single flower can boast with such confidence that they love it primarily not for beauty. And for endurance and unpretentiousness, for continuous flowering, for healing and even magical properties, for aroma and even taste!
- Why are marigolds from home seeds "not like that"?
- And marigolds from purchased seeds are puny and nondescript?
- How to help marigolds "breathe"?
Read in our article.
Marigold planting and care
- Landing: sowing in open ground in late May or early June. For seedlings - in March.
- Flowering: from June to frost.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- Soil: loamy, well moistened at the beginning of the growing season, nutritious, neutral.
- Watering: regular and sufficient before flowering, then moderate.
- Top dressing: with mineral solutions: 1st — at a seedling height of 10 cm, 2nd — during budding, 3rd — at the beginning of flowering.
- Cropping: possible, but not required.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: spider mites, thrips, aphids, caterpillars, snails, slugs.
- Diseases: gray rot, black leg, root rot, viral infection.
Read more about growing marigolds below.
Marigolds (lat. Tagetes) is a genus of perennial and annual plants belonging to the family of aster or Asteraceae. The birthplace of plants is South and Central America. They have long been used in the rituals of local Indian tribes, as well as for getting rid of various diseases. Marigolds came to Europe in the 16th century and were the first overseas flowers to appear in Russia. Marigold owes their name to Karl Linnaeus, who named them after Tages, the Etruscan demigod, grandson of Jupiter, who became famous for his gift of a fortuneteller and beauty.
Today, marigolds, or, as they are also called, chornobryvtsy, have about 40 species and are cultivated in many countries of the world.
Marigold flowers - description
Marigold stems are erect or branched, forming a bush from 20 cm to 130 cm high. The root system is fibrous, the leaves are pinnately divided or pinnately dissected, opposite or alternate, the color of the leaves is from light green to dark green. Flower baskets in different shades of yellow, brown and orange. Middle flowers - tubular, bisexual, marginal - false lingual, five stamens. The pestle has two stigmas, the lower ovary. Marigolds bloom very abundantly from June to the first frost. The fruit is a linear achene. Marigold seeds give abundant self-sowing and retain viability for 3-4 years. A strong spicy smell does not exude flowers as marigold leaves.
Growing Marigold from Seeds
Planting marigolds is not difficult even for a beginner, since these flowers are completely unpretentious. You can add a ready-made flowering bush, and it will almost certainly be accepted and will delight you with a long flowering. And you can sow the seeds directly into the open ground without any fancy. This should be done in May, when the soil warms up sufficiently. Make a furrow with a chopper about 5 cm deep, spill it with water, sow seeds in the furrow and sprinkle them with earth. Sprouts will appear in a couple of weeks, and if they sprout too densely, sprout them.
But for those who are not looking for easy ways and are ready to test themselves as a breeder, we will tell you how to plant marigolds, how to grow marigolds from seedlings, how marigolds are made from seeds and when to plant marigolds for seedlings.
Preparing marigold seeds for planting
Marigold seeds are purchased only for the first planting, because at the end of flowering you will easily get seeds from your faded marigolds. It is only necessary to let several inflorescences dry well right on the bush and, if there is no rain, you can easily extract ripened seeds from the cup, dry them and save until spring sowing. Just remember that almost all marigolds existing in the culture are hybrids, which means that every fourth seedling does not retain varietal properties and can inherit either paternal or maternal traits.
Many gardeners planting marigolds on seedlings is carried out by sprouted seeds. To germinate, spread the seeds on a saucer covered with a damp cloth, place the saucer in a plastic bag and place in a warm place. After three days, the seeds should hatch.
In the photo: Marigold seeds
When to sow marigolds on seedlings
The sooner you sow marigolds on seedlings (even in the early spring), the faster they will bloom. If you grow different species, then know that the marigolds are upright before the others (in mid-March), the marigolds are stunted and small-leaved in early April, and then all three species will bloom in June. The cultivation of marigold seedlings is a simple process, but there are moments that cannot be missed. Prepare a mixture of soil: humus, peat, turf, sand (1; 1; 1; 0.5) and disinfect by spilling with a disinfectant fungicide solution or a dark pink potassium permanganate solution.
Make sure that at the bottom of the container there is a drainage layer of crushed stone, sand or expanded clay 3 cm high, apply fertilizers to the soil (any organic matter, except fresh manure ).
At a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other, make grooves, spread the seeds in them and sprinkle with a small layer of soil. Watering must be done very carefully so that the water does not wash the seeds out of the ground. The containers are kept in a warm place (22-25 ºC) and make sure that the soil does not dry out. Sprouts should appear no later than in a week, then the container must be transferred to the light and slightly lower the temperature (15-18 ºC).
In the photo: Sowing marigold seeds for seedlings
When to plant marigolds
Seedlings are planted in open ground when the threat of late frost passes: marigolds come from warm regions and cannot tolerate cold weather. In addition, you need to wait until at least 3 leaves and a powerful root system are formed in the seedlings. This usually happens in late May or early June. Marigold needs soil that is nutritious, well moistened in the first half of summer, loamy and neutral. If the soil is infertile, you will have to fertilize 2-3 times during the growing season.
In the photo: Marigold seedlings in pots
The distance between seedlings depends on the species and variety. Tall marigolds are planted every 40 cm, the distance between the rows is also 40 cm (40x40 pattern), medium-tall - according to the 30x30 pattern, low-growing - 20x20. After planting, there is a need for frequent and abundant watering of marigolds, because despite the fact that they are considered drought tolerant plants, if the marigolds are undershot, they will grow feeble, and their inflorescences will be small.
In the photo: Flowering marigolds in the flowerbed
Marigolds like bright lighting , and although they tolerate partial shade and even shade, they bloom most beautifully in the strongest sun. During growth, watering should be sufficient, but as soon as inflorescences begin to form, watering must be reduced so that the moisture does not stagnate: from this the plants rot and do not bloom. Fertilizing marigolds is not necessary at all, but if you feed them, marigolds will respond with gratitude to this. You need to feed with complex fertilizers when the seedlings reach a height of 10 cm, then when the first buds appear and, finally, at the very beginning of flowering.
Marigolds need regular weeding and loosening of the soil , otherwise it is difficult for them to breathe. In the summer, if marigolds have grown, pruning to form beautiful bushes. Remove the faded inflorescences and the plants will bloom even more. The peculiar aroma of marigolds and the phytoncides contained in them serve as protection against fungal diseases not only for the plants themselves, but also for those that grow in the neighborhood. Not for nothing that many flower growers frame marigold plantings throughout the garden. But if the summer is too wet, then snails and slugs may appear. The smell of bleach, placed in jars between the plants, can scare them away.
Sometimes gray rot appears on the leaves and stems. In this case, the affected plants will have to be destroyed so that they do not infect other marigolds. In a dry summer, plants can be attacked by a spider mite , which will have to be fought by spraying with infusion of onions, yarrow , red hot pepper . But to prevent this from happening, try to increase the level of humidity by spraying water around the marigolds several times a day.
Marigolds after flowering
As a rule, decorative marigolds are annual plants, therefore, after flowering during autumn digging, they are simply pulled out. If you want to grow marigolds next year, collect the seeds, dry them and leave them in storage until the end of March or beginning of February.
Do not throw out dried inflorescences, they will be useful to you in the household and in the first-aid kit. For example, if you have to work for a long time at a computer, eat 2-3 small heads of marigolds of dark color before eating or adding them to a salad.
Pictured: Dried Marigolds
With roundworms or pinworms, adults should be eaten before bedtime for adults - 5, and for children - 2-3 (depending on age) marigold heads.
If you throw a bucket of faded marigolds into a compost pit, there will be no midges around it.
Put a bunch of marigolds on the windowsill and at the front door, and unexpected unkind guests will pass by your house.
And finally, we offer several recipes that can cause interest in women:
- Lip balm (to achieve softness): 2 tablespoons of chopped marigold heads mixed with 1 tablespoon of apricot oil and 1/3 cup olive oil. Infuse the mixture in the dark for a week, then strain, carefully squeezing the raw materials. Lubricate your lips as needed.
- Face Lotion. 2 tablespoons of crushed marigold inflorescences pour a glass of boiling water and leave for the night, then strain, squeezing the leftovers, add 1 teaspoon of lemon juice and 1 tablespoon of vodka. Store the lotion in the refrigerator. Wipe your face with infusion three times a day.
- In case of inflammation or irritation of the skin of the face, sweating, use this tool: 2 tablespoons of crushed marigold heads pour one and a half glasses of hot water, bring to a boil, then insist 3-4 hours under the lid, strain, squeeze the raw materials, pour in the juice of a large aloe leaf and 2 tablespoons tablespoons of water. Keep the composition in the refrigerator. Wipe sore spots twice a day.
A flower bed of marigolds is an invaluable home pharmacy: modern scientific research confirms the healing properties of marigolds, known from legends and traditions, so growing marigolds not only gives aesthetic pleasure, but also brings real benefits to human health. Lutein, for example, which they contain, reduces the likelihood of developing cataracts.
Alternative medicine also treats marigold diabetes mellitus and inflammation of the pancreas. Marigolds are medicinal, dried, and then infused, treat stomatitis, bronchitis, asthma and the common cold, purify the blood. To prepare the infusion, you need to pour a tablespoon of crushed flowers with a liter of boiling water, insist for three hours, then strain and drink in a glass half an hour before meals for a month.
In the photo: Dried marigold inflorescences
Baths with the addition of marigold broth have a beneficial effect on the nervous system, relieve stress and a sense of anxiety, therefore they are recommended for depression and neurosis. In addition, the peoples of South America have long used marigolds for food and as a seasoning, and for the preparation of sauces and pastries, and for marinades. In the markets of the Caucasus, marigolds are sold as a powder, added to pilaf, satsivi and soups and called "Imereti saffron" by culinary specialists.
The French, in order to satisfy the demands of their gourmets, grow marigolds on an industrial scale. Marigold leaves included in marinades give canned vegetables elasticity and a pleasant aroma.
Pictured: Dried Ground Marigolds
And here is a homemade cookie recipe that you will definitely like: 4 whisk the whites in a foam; 2 tablespoons of fresh marigold petals, grind with 100 g of sugar; rubbing 4 tablespoons of butter, gradually add to it 4 yolks, petals with sugar, then 100 g of flour, and then carefully put the whipped whites on top and gently mix; put the dough on a baking sheet and bake until the cake becomes golden. Cut the cooled cake into squares.
Types and varieties of marigolds
There are many varieties of marigolds in culture, but three varieties are popular: marigolds erect (usually tall), marigolds rejected (undersized) and marigolds, which are less common in our latitudes than others. Varieties of these three species are very diverse: among them there are large-flowered and small-flowered marigolds, terry and densely terry marigolds of all shades of yellow, orange and brown.
Or African marigolds, are giants of the genus, their height is from 30 to 100 cm. Inflorescences, as a rule, monophonic and terry, reach 15 cm in diameter. Among the most popular varieties of marigold Vanilla 70 cm tall with cream-white terry inflorescences 12 cm in diameter; Kilimanjaro marigolds 60-70 cm tall with dense globular inflorescences; Marigolds of Antigua, not tall, up to 25 cm tall, but erect, with large flowers - up to 15 cm in diameter, golden, lemon yellow, orange and bright yellow in color.
Pictured: Tagetes erect vanilla (Tagetes erecta) Pictured: Tagetes erect yellow (Tagetes erecta) In the photo: Marigold erect Kilimanjaro (Tagetes erecta)
Marigolds undersized (Tagetes patula)
Either marigolds rejected , or French marigolds rarely grow above 60 cm. They are compact bushes with many terry and non-flower inflorescences, the diameter of which rarely exceeds 8 cm. These marigolds are also called sprawling. Growers are in demand in varieties of the Bonanza series up to 30 cm high (Bonanza Bolero, Bonanza Orange, Bonanza Flame, etc.), which have high decorative terry inflorescences of bright flowers of 5-6 cm in diameter and a long flowering time; the Carmen marigolds, decorating the flower garden with terry inflorescences with corrugated petals of red-brown along the edges and orange-yellow in the middle of the shades, are very beautiful.
In the photo: Tagetes patula Bonanza Flame In the photo: Tagetes patula Bonanza Yellow In the photo: Tagetes patula
Or Mexican marigolds are very different from all other species. Firstly, they have very beautiful delicate lace leaves, they seem to soar in the air, exuding a delicate aroma. Secondly, their small inflorescences are so numerous that they resemble fireworks of red-orange, golden yellow and golden orange lights. They have been cultivated since 1795. Today, there are about 70 varieties. They grow no higher than 40 cm, have a powerful root system and adventitious roots on the lower part of the stems. The most interesting varieties are Ursula (inflorescences golden-orange), Golden Jam, Gnome, Lulu (inflorescences golden-yellow), Paprika (red-orange color of inflorescences).
In the photo: Tagetes tenuifolia In the photo: Tagetes tenuifolia In the photo: Tagetes tenuifolia